Premium Membership is now 50% off! He was nephew of the patriarch of that city, Theophilus. After tearing her body in pieces, they took her mangled limbs to a place called Cinaron, and there burnt them. "For if our Lord Jesus Christ is God, how is the holy Virgin who gave [him] birth, not God-bearer [Theotokos]?" ), rhetoric and humanities at ages 15 to 20 (393-397), and Christian theology and biblical studies in his 20s (398-402). Meanwhile Pope Celestine died. The religious argument involved the relation of the divine and human within Jesus Christ. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','2'])); At the same time, it is undeniable that Cyril's temperament was confrontational, even divisive. The pope, meanwhile. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cyril also ordered all Jews be expelled from the city, which housed one of the largest Jewish communities of the Roman Empire. He began to exert his authority by causing the churches of the Novatianist Christians to be closed and their sacred vessels to be seized. Cyril was born about 378 in the small town of Theodosios, Egypt, near modern day Malalla el Kobra. Before becoming patriarch, Cyril had supported his uncle Theophilus to achieve the deposition of the Antiochene Saint John Chrysostom from the position of patriarch of Constantinople. As a champion for orthodoxy, Cyril had few equals; but as a practitioner of Christian love toward one's enemies, his saintly status is questionable. His education showed through his knowledge, in his writings, and his influence on other Christian writers of his day. He himself took the place of council president. Nor can Cyril be excused entirely for his followers' brutality in the murder of Hypatia. Book 3. pp. He sent these sermons to John of Antioch, who was inclined to accept them as evidence of Nestorius' orthodoxy. His mother remained close to her brother and under his guidance Cyril was well educated. Cyril's impatience had unfortunate results beyond the exclusion of the delegation from Antioch, for the legates from Rome also had not arrived. In his resultant struggle with the imperial governor, Orestes, Cyril's followers stoned Orestes and were implicated in the hideous slaying of the respected Alexandrian female philosopher Hypatia. For this he was strongly criticized by the church historian Socrates of Constantinople: On the third day after the death of Theophilus, Cyril came into possession of the episcopate, with greater power than Theophilus had ever exercised. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Heiliger Kyrill von Alexandria. Though Theodoret still refused to denounce an earlier defense of Nestorius, John did so, and Cyril declared his joy over this in a letter to John. He succeeded his uncle Theophilus as bishop of the see of Alexandria in 412 and came in conflict with the civil administration over the zeal with which he championed orthodoxy. His mother's brother, Theophilus, was a priest who rose to the powerful position of Pope of Alexandria. A critical enquiry, why the blessed Baptist is called by Christ not only a lamp, but burning and shining; on the words, He was the burning lamp. [Translated by P. E. Pusey] |285. Cyril at this point had no answer to a letter he had written to Celestine asking "whether the holy synod should receive a man (Nestorius) who condemned what it preached." Although considered one of the Greek Fathers, he demonstrated a knowledge of Latin through his extensive correspondence with the bishop of Rome, Pope Celestine I. During his own reign at Alexandria, Cyril reportedly faced troubles with the Antiochene-oriented Christians in Egypt. When he arrived with the imperial commissioner, Count Candidian, and his own friend Count Irenaeus, Nestorius found the churches of Ephesus closed to him. Cyril greatest fame, however, was won in the context of the rivalry between the Alexandrian and Antiochene schools of theological reflection.  Some of the tensions between Jews and Christians was prompted by an alleged slaughter of Christians at the hands of Alexandrian Jews who lured Christians into the streets at night claiming that the church was on fire. There aren’t many people who have managed to collect so many fiercely loyal friends alongside so many equally fiercely raging enemies. Even so, the dispute continued, and peace in the church was only restored in 433, when Cyril accepted a statement, representing a compromise with Antioch, that emphasized the distinctness of the two natures within the one Person of Christ. He was tonsured and ordained as a reader by his uncle Theophilus in the Church of Alexandria and soon advanced in position. His attitude toward the Jews was even less pacific, and the precedent he set of violently expelling the Jewish community from Alexandria stands as a shameful reminder of Christian anti-Judaism for which the Catholic Church only recently was compelled to apologize. Black Friday Sale! This article contains text from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913), a publication in the public domain. However, he also offered an olive branch by declaring himself willing to use the Theotokos to describe the Virgin. Cyril is counted a… Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on Luke (1859) Sermons 66-80. Cyril received a classical and theological education at Alexandria and was ordained by his uncle. Celestine viewed Cyril not only as the leading prelate of the East, but also as the inheritor of the orthodox tradition of Athanasius, champion of the orthodox case against Arianism. Cyril then summoned a council of his own and composed a letter including 12 theological propositions which Nestorius must join him in anathematizing. His statements highlighted Cyril's tendency to deny the two natures (divine and human) of Christ, but they also emphasized his own tendency to draw the distinction between Christ's divinity and humanity too starkly. His feast day is celebrated in the Western Church on January 28; in the East it is honored either on June 9, or (together with with his fellow Alexandrian Athanasius) on January 18.
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